All about Acid rain

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All about Acid rain

Mensaje  Grecia Barrera el Vie Nov 19, 2010 1:07 am

Introduction
Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, i.e. elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH). It can have harmful effects on plants, aquatic animals, and infrastructure through the process of wet deposition. Acid rain is caused by emissions of compounds of ammonium, carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur which react with the water molecules in the atmosphere to produce acids. Governments have made efforts since the 1970s to reduce the production of sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere with positive results. However, it can also be caused naturally by the splitting of nitrogen compounds by the energy produced by lightning strikes, or the release of sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere by volcano eruptions.

Chemist
The acid rain term is used to refer acid deposition. Thanks to pollution in the air caused by gases coming from factories, cars and homes rain becomes dangerous to human beings. Once the fuel has been burned, chemicals as sulphur and nitrogen are released into the air. When these gasses are mixed already with the air they suffer a transformation into different chemicals: sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. These chemicals take birth when fossil fuels like coal and oil are burned by power stations, factories contribute in an enormous quantity, but that’s not the only places where the chemicals come from because it comes from our own homes too.
We can measure acid rain trough pH; it is uncharged of measuring acids and alkalis. When a pH number is low it means that something is acid, however; a high number it is said that something right there is an alkali. The pH is nothing more than a special scale to measure that measures the strength of acids and alkalis. The rain is usually a little acidic, and it has a pH of about 5.5., but if the pH of the rainfall becomes less than the range of 5.5 then it is said that the rain is probably polluted by acid gases. “Clean” or unpolluted, rain has a slightly acidic pH of over 5.7, because carbon dioxide and water in the air react together to form carbonic acid. The effects of acid rain can last for generations, as the effects of pH level increases it is a continued leaching of undesirable chemicals into our water sources and it will obviously keep killing off vulnerable insects and of course marine species leaving us a strong unbreakable wall to try to restore native life.
One of the most recent proposals to control the acid rain disaster phenomenon is to use flue gas desulfurization to remove sulfur containing gases.

What is acid rain? The acid rain term is used to refer acid deposition. Thanks to pollution in the air caused by gases coming from factories, cars and homes rain becomes dangerous to human beings.
What chemicals make rain acidic, and how does it happen? Once the fuel has been burned, chemicals as sulphur and nitrogen are released into the air. When these gasses are mixed already with the air they suffer a transformation into a different chemical: sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide
Where do these chemical come from? These chemicals take birth when fossil fuels like coal and oil are burned by power stations, factories contribute in an enormous quantity, but that’s not the only places where the chemicals come from because it comes from our own homes too.
How do we measure the acidity of rain? We can measure acid rain trough pH, it is uncharged of measuring acids and alkalis. When a pH number is low it means that something is acid, however; a high number it is said that something right there is an alkali.
What is ph? The pH is an especial scale to measure that measures the strength of acids and alkalis.
Describe the ph range and list various things that correspond to the various ph levels.
The rain is usually a little acidic, and it has a pH of about 5.5., but if the pH of the rainfall becomes less than the range of 5.5 then it is said that the rain is probably polluted by acid gases.
What is the ph of normal rain, and at what level does the ph become dangerous?
The normal acid rain has a pH level around 7. Liquids with pH lees than 7 are acidic. Clean or unpolluted, rain has a slightly acidic pH of over 5.7, because carbon dioxide and water in the air react together to form carbonic acid. The effects of acid rain can last for generations, as the effects of pH level increases it is a continued leaching of undesirable chemicals into our water sources and it will obviously keep killing off vulnerable insects and of course marine species leaving us a strong unbreakable wall to try to restore native life.
One of the most recent proposals to control the acid rain disaster phenomenon is to use flue gas desulfurization to remove sulfur containing gases.

Biologist
Did you know...?
Acid rain is a mixture of the humidity in the soil and nitrogen oxides are the result of toxic waste produced by factories,
Acid rain mainly alters aquatic ecosystems, forest areas and soil; their natural environmental condition deteriorates and adversely affects its use.
Acid rain and corrosive nature corrodes buildings and infrastructure.
Another effect of acid rain is increasing the acidity in fresh water; this impairs the reproductive process of fish, and consequently the scarcity of animals in lakes and aquifer systems.
The extent of impairment in each ecosystem depends of the type of soil, water or region where there is precipitation.

Health Scientist
Talk about a problem that not many know that it affects us, acid rain, and then say it is:
When the atmosphere gets high doses of sulfur and nitrogen oxides by complex chemical reactions of these compounds are partially converted into sulfuric acid
and nitric acid.
Believe it or not studies have shown that human beings are also directly affected by acid rain, as many people think these organic disorders only affect the planet, but remember that we too are part of this planet.
Acid rain directly affects us that due to pollution that travels through the air we breathe, the pollutants that cause acid rain-sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) interact in the atmosphere to form fine particles sulfate and nitrate which can be carried by wind over long distances and be inhaled deep into the lungs of people. Fine particles can penetrate inside the home. Many scientific studies have established a relationship between elevated levels of fine particles and increased illness and premature deaths caused by heart and lung problems such as asthma and bronchitis.
The effect of acid rain on humans determines a very significant increase of respiratory illness (asthma, chronic bronchitis syndrome Krupp, etc.) and an increase in cancer cases.
Pollution weakens the whole organism, whether human, plant or animal, and this causes a reduction in defense and a greater willingness to disease.
The most affected are children, the elderly, pregnant women and those suffering from chronic ailments such as heart, circulation and asthma.
Another indirect way in which acid rain affects us is that when it seeps into the soil, contaminates all the products we eat as food, another indirect way of how it affects us is causing damage to the ecosystem in which we live, since it is also causing the greenhouse effect which causes severe damage to the ozone layer and leaves us exposed to ultraviolet rays which are harmful to health, cause skin cancer.
These are just some of the consequences of acid rain, so we think it's not good to harm our planet and also we will be causing an irreversible damage. Act properly, we must take care and look after our planet.

Economist
The acid rain is a problem that affects not only offer nature, people perceive that it’s bad and not risk not even walk under it, this can cause problems in many aspects, such as businesses don’t work, the streets are empty and people are afraid.
In a matter of flora, 40% of crops are affected by the components of the known causes acid rain and soil acidity and leads to changes in these, adds and removes toxic calcium. We can find plants that don’t develop as they should and if we add factors such as irrigation of sewage and bad time of the harvest only to sell, we could say that what we consume is of very poor quality. Also in the bigger stores that buy these plants, check the quality and may be rejected.
In the fauna, rain carries a natural cause to the rivers and seas, fish and other species that live in that ecosystem are affected the same way, some species do adapt but others suffer from disorders or don’t survive. The most striking is that in some species affects reproduction and stop producing eggs.
Those most affected are shrimp, mussels, snails, salmon and trout.
Moreover, the buildings that originally were made of limestone are severely affected and experience changes the effect of rain, the stone with the acidity becomes gypsum that is much more fragile and water dissolves quickly.
The metals also corrode easily, causing losses to companies that export such materials.
Today according to scientific studies rainfall is 100 times more acidic than 200 years ago.

Does acid rain affect building materials? Yes, because the contact with the materials weakens.
Does acid rain have an effect on architecture? Yes, especially with piety limestone, gypsum and makes the finish of some buildings is changed, is vulnerable to water and is weakened by changing finishes.
What does acid rain do to our roads, highways, and bridges? Wears down
What is the effect of acid rain on things made from metal such as automobiles, trains, buses, and other means of transportation? Corrode and erode faster any normal contact with rain water.
What does the effect of acid rain cost us in terms of money? Deteriorating monuments, cars, bridges, things affecting are we use every day and equity.
What are the economic consequences of acid rain on fisheries, forestry, and agriculture? Production delays seasons and have more demand and less supply raises the price and it affects, alters species of flora and fauna, species and produce poor quality food kills.
While you are researching your particular area of concern, look for solutions to the problems caused by acid rain. While the final section of your report, the recommendations, drawn up by will be the entire group, you must be prepared to offer solutions in your specific area of concern.

There are an endless number of items to combat acid rain as using biofuels, alternative energy production, reduce automobile use and use methane gas.


Conclusion
Take precautions!
Prevention methods
Technical solutions
In the United States, many coal-burning power plants use Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to remove sulfur-containing gases from their stack gases. An example of FGD is the wet scrubber which is commonly used in the U.S. and many other countries. A wet scrubber is basically a reaction tower equipped with a fan that extracts hot smoke stack gases from a power plant into the tower. Lime or limestone in slurry form is also injected into the tower to mix with the stack gases and combine with the sulfur dioxide present. The calcium carbonate of the limestone produces pH-neutral calcium sulfate that is physically removed from the scrubber. That is, the scrubber turns sulfur pollution into industrial sulfates.
In some areas the sulfates are sold to chemical companies as gypsum when the purity of calcium sulfate is high. In others, they are placed in landfill. However, the effects of acid rain can last for generations, as the effects of pH level change can stimulate the continued leaching of undesirable chemicals into otherwise pristine water sources, killing off vulnerable insect and fish species and blocking efforts to restore native life.
Vehicle emissions control reduces emissions of nitrogen oxides from motor vehicles.
International treaties
A number of international treaties on the long range transport of atmospheric pollutants have been agreed e.g. Sulphur Emissions Reduction Protocol under the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution.
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Mensaje  Grecia Barrera el Vie Nov 19, 2010 1:10 am

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